A baby’s environment is critical to their growth and development. Developmenal care strategies have been designed to reduce the stresses of the NICU for these infants as they are not yet ready for the world outside of their mother's womb. These strategies include a broad range of medical and nursing interventions1 which aim to provide an appropriate environment for each individual infant during this critical period in his or her neural development.
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Family-centered care (FCC) is a partnership approach to health care decision-making between the family and health care staff.2 This philosophy integrates the parents as part of the team and while the implementation of this philosophy may differ from hospital to hospital, the idea of placing the family members as primary care givers is consistent.
Carole Kenner, founder and president of the Council of International Neonatal Nurses, discusses how the NICU culture has evolved in the past 30 years. She remembers the first NICU she worked in and talks about how different the environment was then. She reminds us that developmental care practices are just as important as other therapies and training should also be focused in this area.
Developmental care focuses on two key principles: first, family centred care, which emphasizes how important the parents are to the baby's development. Second, recognizing the signals given by premature babies in order to be able to respond to their needs. Print and post these 10 tips for your unit.
Historial milestones and foundations of developmental care.
Introduction to Neurobehavorial theory, Synactive Theory of Grown and Development, Transaction Theory, Coping Theory, Behavior Cues, Communication Theory, and the Universe of Developmental Care Model.
A review of clinical research on developmental care. She also answers the questions, (1) what is developmental care? and (2) why developmental care?
Taking what we know about developmental care and implementing change in the NICU accordingly including recommendations for other educational opportunities.
The concept of pro-developmental care addresses precisely this topic: reducing stress for the patients in the neonatal unit as much as possible. This should in turn promote both neural and physiological development. The aim is to reduce long-term consequences, for example, abnormal behaviour and cognitive disorders.
Early muscular skeletal development plus handling, positioning and caregiving interventions. Activity dependent development, goals for developmentally supportive positioning
Improper positioning, dolichocephaly and positional plagiocephaly.
Implementation of appropriate positioning, recommendations and techniques (supine position)
Continuation of implementation of appropriate positioning, recommendations and techniques (prone and sidelying)
1 Sizun J, Westrup B. Early developmental care for preterm neonates: a call for more research. Archives of Disease in Childhood - Fetal and Neonatal Edition 2004;89:F384-F388.
2 Family-Centered Care: Current Applications and Future Directions in Pediatric Health Care. Matern Child Health J. 2012 Feb; 16(2): 297–305.